Andalusite is a mineral with a hardness of 8 out of 10 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness [?]. These Orthorhombicly structured gems are made of lead sulphate, their full chemical compound being Al2SiO5.

The gem Andalusite is a gemstone composed of Lead Sulphate giving it a yellowish hew with a light tint of a rusty red color. Its named after the city Andalusia in Spain where it was first found.

Colors generally vary from yellow, to yellow green, to green, to brownish red (more iron in the read hued versions), to purple, and even black. This gem is pleochroic meaning it changes color depending on the direction and angle you are looking at it from.

Andalusite can be found in Australia, Brazil, Germany, Russia, and of Spain. Minor deposits have been found in other countries like Canada the United States. If you are looking for the best crystals however check in Morocco, and Namibia.

The specific gravity [?] for Andalusite is 3.16, it's refractive index [?] is 1.63-1.64, and it's double refraction [?] is 0.01.


Andalusite has of yet not been used for anything of historical significance.

Industrial Usages

As of yet there has been no major industrial usage found for Andalusite

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Double Refraction or dr is the ability of a mineral to separate a refracted ray of light into 2 rays. If held over an image or text it will display the object 2x its original size.

Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness is the standard used to categorize a mineral's ability to resist scratching. It gets its name from Friedrich Mohs, the German geologist who first created the scale.

RI or Refractive Index defines light's ability to move through the mineral or in a general sense, any material.

SG or Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of any substance to that of pure water at temperature of 3.98°C(39.2°F) and standard atmospheric pressure. This is important to note when actively seeking these minerals in the wild. Minerals with a higher SG will settle below material with a lower sg over time.