Ruby: Ruby is the most valuable variety of Corundum. The color varies from fiery vermilion to violet red, but because rubies are pleochroic, different colors are also found in the same stone; bright or sometimes brick red in one direction, tending to carmine in the other. The color is also accompanied by marked fluorescence which is stimulated by ordinary, artificial light, and above all, by the ultra (read full)
Rutile: Rutile with anatase and brookite is a trimorph of titanium oxide in the Rutile group.
It forms characteristic slender prismatic striated lengthways, variably terminated and often geniculate twinned crystals of the tetragonal system. Elbow- and heart-shaped (geniculated) twin crystals are common. It is hard, heavy, fragile, with perfect cleavage. It has a metallic to adamantine lustre an (read full)
Sapphire: Sapphire is the blue variety of Corundum. Sapphires can be a very dark blue, to the point of seeming dense and blackish from a distance, sometimes accompanied by a blue to dull green pleochroism, which is only visible from the side in cut stones. They may also be a strong, but not too bright blue, easily recognizable from a distance, this being the real color. Other possibilities are light, usual (read full)
Sard: Sard is the uniformly colored red-brown or brownish-yellow variety of Chalcedony, which in turn is a microcrystalline variety of Quartz. There is no strict separation between sard and cornelian/carnelian (red to reddish brown), because they are both chalcedonies found in the same deposits and were employed for the same objects. The tints of a sard stone may be reddish or orange. Good-quality mat (read full)
Sardonyx: Sardonyx is a gem variety of reddish-brown colored sard with white or black banded chalcedony or onyx, used to make cameo with the raised black, red, or brown background. It is an example of a layer stone subvariety of Chalcedony, which in turn is a cryptocrystalline variety of Quartz.
Layer stones are multi-layered materials used in the art of gem-carving and engraving, also called glyptog (read full)
Scapolite: Scapolite is a mixed crystal series, a complicated sodium calcium aluminum silicate group composed of calcium-rich meionite, and sodium-rich marialite. It appears as yellow, blue, pink, violet, or colorless prismatic crystals with a tetragonal system, mostly surface-growing, with perfect cleavage. These crystals are usually in aggregates that are massive granular, long columnar, dense, with vitr (read full)
Scheelite: Scheelite is a mineral in the group of Sulfates, Chromates, Molybdates, Tungstates. It has the same crystal structure and outside appearance as powellite. But scheelite is a calcium-tungstate, while powellite is a calcium-molybdate.
In rocks, scheelite may appear as crystals like two pyramids connected at its bases, or pseudo-octahedral, or having table-like faces, with detectable p (read full)