/ Mineral & Gemstone Database


Hessonite: Hessonite is the brown-orange variety of Grossular, a nesosilicate in the Garnet group, with an isometric crystal system. It appears with dodecahedral or trapezohedral crystals, cinnamon-brown to orange because of its iron content. Its color matches that of the oil of cinnamon. It also appears as golden-yellow, yellow-brown, or reddish-brown. It is very hard, heavy, fragile, has no cleavage. It (read full)


Howlite: Howlite an opaque, massive mineral used for ornamental and utilitarian articles. is a rarity for collectors It has a monoclinic tabular crystal system with a subvitreous luster. The most common occurrence is in the form of a cauliflower. Howlite is found in borate deposits, with most ornamental pieces found from various sites in California (USA) and Mexico. It occurs as opaque white, and may be (read full)


Hypersthene: Hypersthene is an important iron-rich orthopyroxene in the Pyroxene group with an orthorhombic crystal system. Other orthopyroxenes forming a complete chemical series with hypersthene are enstatite and bronzite. When the iron content of enstatite increases than it is converted into hypersthene, therefore it is opaque. Pyroxenes are a widespread group of rock-forming silicates. Hypersthene (read full)


Indicolite: Indicolite is the blue sodium-rich variety of Tourmaline, and may come in all shades of blue, from light-blue, violet-blue to deep red or deep green. It generally appears quite a deep blue, even the color of dark blue ink, perhaps appearing green in one direction because of its strong pleochroism. Sometimes indicolite is an overall greenish blue, which, unlike the color of greenish blue sapphire, (read full)


Iolite: Iolite is the violet-colored variety of Cordierite (named after French geologist P. Cordier), a silicate of aluminum and magnesium, with an orthorhombic crystal system. Though the name cordierite is used by mineralogists, the name iolite has become established among gemologists. It appears as stubby, prismatic crystals, pesudo-hexagonal twins with a glassy appearance. It is frequently microgranul (read full)


Ivory: Ivory is an organic gem material, largely obtained from the tusks of African and Indian (Asiatic) elephants, but also from the teeth and tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, and other mammals. Like bones, it consists mainly of calcium phosphate in the form of oxyapatite and a small quantity of calcium carbonate, bound together by large amounts of the proteinaceous organic substance dentine, to form (read full)


Jadeite: Jadeite is a silicate of sodium and aluminum, and is a member of the Clinopyroxene group of minerals. It is so called because it is the source of one of the ornamental materials commonly known as Jade. It has a monoclinic crystal system, and occurs as granular aggregates of small crystals, but has occasionally been found in crystals of a few centimeters. The color varies a great deal because of t (read full)