Citrine is a mineral with a hardness of 7 out of 10 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness [?]. These Trigonally structured gems are made of silicon dioxide, their full chemical compound being SiO2.

Citrine is an attractive type of quartz, which is the commonest mineral on the earth's surface. But citrine itself is an uncommon macrocrystalline variety. Its yellow color brought about by its iron hydrate content, its reddish yellow from a trace of ferric iron. It forms hexagonal prisms, terminated by pyramidal shapes. Its faces are often striated, and the crystals twinned and distorted, having an uneven fracture at its base. It occurs in granular, stalactitic, and cryptocrystalline habits. It is a transparent to translucent mineral, and has a vitreous luster on fresh surfaces.

Natural citrines are mostly pale yellow. Treated citrines show no pleochroism (property of exhibiting different colors), while natural citrines have weak pleochroism.

It is insoluble, except in hydrofluoric acid.

Natural citrine is rare. The best comes from Brazil (Bahia, Goyez, Minas Gerais). There are also deposits in Madagascar, Pike's Peak, Colorado (USA), Spain (Cordoba, Salamanca), Russia (Mursinska/Ural), France, and Scotland. It also occurs as ametrine (part citrine, part amethyst) from the Anahi mine, Bolivia.

Five types of citrine coloration exist: orange-brown natural quartz containing iron; yellow to orange-brown colours produced by the heating of amethyst; yellow to orange-brown colours in synthetic quartz grown in the presence of iron; light yellow radiation-induced colour found naturally in quartz or produced by heating smoky quartz; greenish yellow colour produced by irradiation (with or without subsequent heat treatment) either of natural colorless quartz or synthetic colorless quartz.

Citrine may be confused with all yellow gemstones, especially yellow beryl, orthoclase, yellow topaz, and yellow tourmaline.

Citrine's Metaphysical Properties: Citrine is believed by many to create success. That's why many refer to it as the success stone or the success crystal.

The specific gravity [?] for Citrine is 2.65, it's refractive index [?] is 1.54-1.55, and it's double refraction [?] is 0.009.


Citrine derives its name from the French, meaning "lemon-yellow." The ancient Romans used it for beautiful jewelry and intaglio, also as an amulet to protect the wearer from a snake venom, reptile bites, and even evil thoughts, plagues, and epidemics. In the 17th century, both citrine and smoky quartz were called "cairngorm" after their source in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland, and Scottish weapon makers used citrine to adorn dagger handles, sometimes even using a single large citrine crystal as the handle itself. It was also very popular for jewelry in the 19th century.

Industrial Usages

Today, jewelers may advertise that citrine is no longer rare, but in fact, most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartz. Brazilian amethyst turns light-yellow to dark-yellow to red-brown, depending on heat temperature. Some smoky quartzes turn yellow at a lower temperature so care needs to be taken when soldering.

Quartz is used in glassmaking, ceramics, refractories, building materials, and abrasives. Its piezoelectronic property makes it useful in pressure-sensitve devices.

The mineral trade often calls citrines "topazes" but this is incorrect, and should not be allowed, even when qualified as Bahia-, gold-, Madeira-, Palmyra-, Rio Grande-topaz. Most of the citrines on offer in the trade have a tinge of reddish.

Synthetically-colored stones are now produced in Russia and Japan on a commercial scale.

Well-colored, transparent specimens are used are ring-stones and pendants, while less attractive stones are made into necklaces or ornaments.

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Amethyst: Amethyst is the most coveted stone in the quartz group, and it is sometimes confused with beryl. It is usually found layered with milky quartz, and its color varies from purple to violet. It is sometimes sold as Ametrine, but this is actually a combined variation of 2 gems; Amethyst and Citrine. Amethyst like Agate Chalcedony can be found in geodes. There are many types of synthetic Amethyst aro (read full)


Topaz: The transparent, colored crystals, which also have good luster, are widely used as gems.
Topaz is a silicate of aluminum containing fluorine and hydroxyl which occurs in a variety of delicate colors, nicely added by impurities. It is often found in short to long crystal prisms with pyramid-shaped ends, or just clean finished edges. It is often white, semiopaque, milky, or a faded yellow, (read full)



Double Refraction or dr is the ability of a mineral to separate a refracted ray of light into 2 rays. If held over an image or text it will display the object 2x its original size.

Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness is the standard used to categorize a mineral's ability to resist scratching. It gets its name from Friedrich Mohs, the German geologist who first created the scale.

RI or Refractive Index defines light's ability to move through the mineral or in a general sense, any material.

SG or Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of any substance to that of pure water at temperature of 3.98°C(39.2°F) and standard atmospheric pressure. This is important to note when actively seeking these minerals in the wild. Minerals with a higher SG will settle below material with a lower sg over time.